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Land and water shortages are currently driving the use of wetland sites in East African savannah environments. Pastoralists, traditional subsistence farmers, and commercial farms increasingly compete for limited land and water resources. Transfers between wetlands and surrounding dryland savannahs are changing both on a material level and the social level. International interests interfere with the decision-making of local resource users and changes in wetland use are frequently linked to global processes. Ecosystem collapse phenomena and social conflicts increasingly centre on wetlands. The dynamics of the coupled biophysical and socio-cultural processes are seen to determine the resilience, collapse or eventually the reorganisation of agriculturally used wetlands. The interdisciplinary sub-project will describe wetland ecosystem changes under intensified use and establish threshold values for land use. In close collaboration with subprojects B1, B2 and C3 the diverse economic and social strategies of various resource users in the face of changing bio-geophysical conditions will be described, and the rapidly unfolding political ecology of initially two contrasting wetland systems in the East African savannah will be documented